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怎樣鑒別變壓器繞組是銅還是鋁?

2024 - 4 - 26

被閱讀:175次

以鋁充銅(tong)(tong),就(jiu)是(shi)以鋁線圈(quan)(半銅(tong)(tong)半鋁、鋁箔(bo))冒充銅(tong)(tong)線圈(quan)的(de)變壓(ya)(ya)(ya)器(qi)。涉及(ji)三相干式電力(li)變壓(ya)(ya)(ya)器(qi)和油浸式電力(li)變壓(ya)(ya)(ya)器(qi)兩大類產品。分析認(ren)為(wei)這類案例最大的(de)特點就(jiu)是(shi)違法行為(wei)十分隱(yin)蔽。

以(yi)鋁(lv)充銅(tong),就(jiu)是(shi)(shi)以(yi)鋁(lv)線圈(quan)(半銅(tong)半鋁(lv)、鋁(lv)箔)冒(mao)充銅(tong)線圈(quan)的變(bian)(bian)壓(ya)器(qi)。涉及(ji)三相干式電力變(bian)(bian)壓(ya)器(qi)和油浸(jin)式電力變(bian)(bian)壓(ya)器(qi)兩大類(lei)產品。分(fen)析認為(wei)這類(lei)案例最(zui)大的特點就(jiu)是(shi)(shi)違法行為(wei)十分(fen)隱蔽(bi)。

1)由于變(bian)壓(ya)器(qi)(qi)特(te)殊的(de)(de)生產工藝,即使是鋁(lv)(lv)線(xian)(xian)圈(quan)的(de)(de)變(bian)壓(ya)器(qi)(qi),接(jie)線(xian)(xian)端子(zi)都用銅鋁(lv)(lv)接(jie)頭(tou)連接(jie),還要由絕緣材料包裹,直觀(guan)看(kan)(kan),外(wai)露接(jie)線(xian)(xian)端子(zi)都是銅材質的(de)(de)。如果不看(kan)(kan)加(jia)工過(guo)程只看(kan)(kan)接(jie)線(xian)(xian)端子(zi)和(he)成品外(wai)觀(guan),難以區別(bie)是銅線(xian)(xian)圈(quan)變(bian)壓(ya)器(qi)(qi)還是鋁(lv)(lv)線(xian)(xian)圈(quan)(半(ban)銅半(ban)鋁(lv)(lv)、鋁(lv)(lv)箔(bo))變(bian)壓(ya)器(qi)(qi),只有分(fen)解(jie)產品才能確認。

2)如果分解(jie)變壓(ya)器,涉及的問題是價格高,動(dong)輒幾萬,甚至幾十萬,分解(jie)執(zhi)法(fa)會承擔(dan)很(hen)大的價值風(feng)險,讓執(zhi)法(fa)人員(yuan)不敢貿然動(dong)手。

3)變(bian)壓器只要設(she)計合理(li),以現有技(ji)術檢測手段(duan),無法通過產品技(ji)術參數(shu)指標(biao)檢測區分變(bian)壓器是銅線(xian)圈(quan)還是鋁線(xian)圈(quan)(半(ban)銅半(ban)鋁、鋁箔)的。

4)企業生產以鋁線圈(半銅(tong)半鋁、鋁箔)充銅(tong)線圈變壓器這種違(wei)法行為(wei)只有關(guan)鍵的個別(bie)人(ren)知(zhi)情(qing),屬于(yu)企業“高層(ceng)機密”。所以違(wei)法行為(wei)非常隱蔽。

  查處的關鍵點
  《變壓器類產品型號編制方法》產品標注在型號上提出了要求,以線圈導線材質字母代號加以區別:變壓器線圈若為銅材質的,在變壓器型號中不標注字母代號,但使用其它材質的必須明示,在型號上標注。如:線圈為鋁材質,型號中標注字母代號“L”;線圈為半銅半鋁材質,型號中標注字母代號“TL”;線圈為鋁箔材質,型號中標注字母代號“CLB”。查處此類案件,執法人員必須找準案件主線,主線就是線圈導線材質與規格型號標注是否一致。

  而在抓主線時要控(kong)制好五個關(guan)鍵(jian)(jian)檢(jian)查點。根據變壓(ya)(ya)器的生產工藝(yi)流(liu)程,五個關(guan)鍵(jian)(jian)點就是(shi)線圈(quan)繞制、變壓(ya)(ya)器裝配、變壓(ya)(ya)器試驗(yan)、成品保管、變壓(ya)(ya)器銷(xiao)售五個環節(jie)。

1)線圈(quan)繞制車(che)間。抓住制作鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)(半(ban)銅半(ban)鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)、鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)箔)線圈(quan)的現場證據,收(shou)集加工(gong)圖紙及(ji)計劃單等(deng)一(yi)手材(cai)料。即使(shi)現場沒有(you)加工(gong)鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)(半(ban)銅半(ban)鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)、鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)箔)線圈(quan)現象,也不能放棄。查原材(cai)料庫(ku)(ku),查有(you)沒有(you)紙包(bao)鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)線或(huo)者(zhe)鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)箔的出入庫(ku)(ku)記錄,如果(guo)有(you),查清入庫(ku)(ku)、出庫(ku)(ku)數量及(ji)規(gui)格型號,便于(yu)與(yu)下道工(gong)序(xu)核對。

2)變(bian)壓器裝(zhuang)配。上道工(gong)序傳遞來(lai)的所有變(bian)壓器構成(cheng)部件,在這里完成(cheng)組裝(zhuang)。變(bian)壓器線圈是(shi)銅(tong)線圈還(huan)是(shi)鋁(lv)(lv)線圈(半(ban)銅(tong)半(ban)鋁(lv)(lv)、鋁(lv)(lv)箔(bo)),清清楚楚,在這里需要對變(bian)壓器進(jin)行編(bian)碼(序號)來(lai)進(jin)行區分。查清變(bian)壓器裝(zhuang)配數(shu)量,查詢(xun)編(bian)碼(序號)編(bian)排規(gui)律,分類統計以便與保管帳(zhang)核對。

3)檢(jian)驗。生產(chan)車(che)間裝配完畢的(de)變(bian)(bian)壓(ya)器(qi)(qi)(qi)必(bi)須進行(xing)單(dan)臺試(shi)驗,試(shi)驗合(he)格(ge)加(jia)蓋(gai)“試(shi)驗合(he)格(ge)章”方(fang)可出廠。試(shi)驗報(bao)告要隨變(bian)(bian)壓(ya)器(qi)(qi)(qi)同行(xing),試(shi)驗報(bao)告存根和隨變(bian)(bian)壓(ya)器(qi)(qi)(qi)同行(xing)的(de)試(shi)驗報(bao)告的(de)內容是一致(zhi)的(de)。如果(guo)鋁線圈(quan)(quan)(半(ban)銅(tong)半(ban)鋁、鋁箔)變(bian)(bian)壓(ya)器(qi)(qi)(qi)按銅(tong)線圈(quan)(quan)變(bian)(bian)壓(ya)器(qi)(qi)(qi)規格(ge)型號(hao)(hao)銷售,檢(jian)驗報(bao)告中規格(ge)型號(hao)(hao)欄目(mu)必(bi)然按“領導指(zhi)示”填寫銅(tong)線圈(quan)(quan)變(bian)(bian)壓(ya)器(qi)(qi)(qi)規格(ge)型號(hao)(hao),而(er)產(chan)品編碼(序號(hao)(hao))是前后對應下來(lai)的(de),不會改變(bian)(bian),變(bian)(bian)壓(ya)器(qi)(qi)(qi)規格(ge)型號(hao)(hao)往往由此“變(bian)(bian)身”。

4)成(cheng)品(pin)庫(ku)。對鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)線(xian)(xian)(xian)圈(quan)(quan)(半(ban)(ban)銅(tong)半(ban)(ban)鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)、鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)箔)變(bian)(bian)(bian)(bian)壓(ya)(ya)器(qi)(qi)(qi)以(yi)何(he)種方式何(he)種規(gui)格(ge)(ge)型號(hao)(hao)入(ru)庫(ku),入(ru)庫(ku)數(shu)量,出(chu)庫(ku)情(qing)況(kuang)怎樣,按(an)(an)規(gui)格(ge)(ge)型號(hao)(hao)找出(chu)從(cong)生產到入(ru)庫(ku)這個環節的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)矛(mao)盾點,看保(bao)管員如何(he)區(qu)(qu)分的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)。值得注意的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)是(shi),同樣編碼(序(xu)號(hao)(hao))的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)變(bian)(bian)(bian)(bian)壓(ya)(ya)器(qi)(qi)(qi)在(zai)(zai)生產環節是(shi)鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)線(xian)(xian)(xian)圈(quan)(quan)(半(ban)(ban)銅(tong)半(ban)(ban)鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)、鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)箔)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)而(er)到了(le)成(cheng)品(pin)保(bao)管環節卻搖身一變(bian)(bian)(bian)(bian)成(cheng)了(le)銅(tong)線(xian)(xian)(xian)圈(quan)(quan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)變(bian)(bian)(bian)(bian)壓(ya)(ya)器(qi)(qi)(qi),好多現(xian)象在(zai)(zai)保(bao)管帳上(shang)(shang)都(dou)能體現(xian)出(chu)來(lai):有(you)(you)(you)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)企業鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)線(xian)(xian)(xian)圈(quan)(quan)(半(ban)(ban)銅(tong)半(ban)(ban)鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)、鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)箔)變(bian)(bian)(bian)(bian)壓(ya)(ya)器(qi)(qi)(qi)入(ru)庫(ku)按(an)(an)鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)線(xian)(xian)(xian)圈(quan)(quan)(半(ban)(ban)銅(tong)半(ban)(ban)鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)、鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)箔)變(bian)(bian)(bian)(bian)壓(ya)(ya)器(qi)(qi)(qi)入(ru),出(chu)庫(ku)按(an)(an)銅(tong)線(xian)(xian)(xian)圈(quan)(quan)變(bian)(bian)(bian)(bian)壓(ya)(ya)器(qi)(qi)(qi)出(chu);有(you)(you)(you)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)線(xian)(xian)(xian)圈(quan)(quan)(半(ban)(ban)銅(tong)半(ban)(ban)鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)、鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)箔)變(bian)(bian)(bian)(bian)壓(ya)(ya)器(qi)(qi)(qi)入(ru)庫(ku)就(jiu)按(an)(an)銅(tong)線(xian)(xian)(xian)圈(quan)(quan)變(bian)(bian)(bian)(bian)壓(ya)(ya)器(qi)(qi)(qi)入(ru),整個賬目不見鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)線(xian)(xian)(xian)圈(quan)(quan)(半(ban)(ban)銅(tong)半(ban)(ban)鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)、鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)箔)變(bian)(bian)(bian)(bian)壓(ya)(ya)器(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)記錄(lu);有(you)(you)(you)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)線(xian)(xian)(xian)圈(quan)(quan)(半(ban)(ban)銅(tong)半(ban)(ban)鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)、鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)箔)變(bian)(bian)(bian)(bian)壓(ya)(ya)器(qi)(qi)(qi)入(ru)庫(ku)不打銘牌,只貼編碼,以(yi)編碼來(lai)區(qu)(qu)分變(bian)(bian)(bian)(bian)壓(ya)(ya)器(qi)(qi)(qi)線(xian)(xian)(xian)圈(quan)(quan)是(shi)銅(tong)、鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)還(huan)是(shi)半(ban)(ban)銅(tong)半(ban)(ban)鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)以(yi)及(ji)鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)箔的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)。如:銅(tong)線(xian)(xian)(xian)圈(quan)(quan)變(bian)(bian)(bian)(bian)壓(ya)(ya)器(qi)(qi)(qi)用“0+年月+序(xu)號(hao)(hao)”、鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)線(xian)(xian)(xian)圈(quan)(quan)變(bian)(bian)(bian)(bian)壓(ya)(ya)器(qi)(qi)(qi)用“1+年月+序(xu)號(hao)(hao)”、半(ban)(ban)銅(tong)半(ban)(ban)鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)線(xian)(xian)(xian)圈(quan)(quan)變(bian)(bian)(bian)(bian)壓(ya)(ya)器(qi)(qi)(qi)用“2+年月+序(xu)號(hao)(hao)”、鋁(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)箔變(bian)(bian)(bian)(bian)壓(ya)(ya)器(qi)(qi)(qi)用“3+年月+序(xu)號(hao)(hao)”等等,花樣繁(fan)多。雖(sui)然各個企業的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)區(qu)(qu)別方式不一樣,但(dan)是(shi),保(bao)管員是(shi)最清楚(chu)不過的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)。有(you)(you)(you)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)在(zai)(zai)保(bao)管帳上(shang)(shang)能體現(xian)出(chu)來(lai),有(you)(you)(you)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)會(hui)單獨記在(zai)(zai)小本(ben)(ben)上(shang)(shang)。雖(sui)然各個企業的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)區(qu)(qu)別方式不一樣,但(dan)是(shi),保(bao)管員是(shi)最清楚(chu)不過的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)。有(you)(you)(you)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)在(zai)(zai)保(bao)管帳上(shang)(shang)能體現(xian)出(chu)來(lai),有(you)(you)(you)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)會(hui)單獨記在(zai)(zai)小本(ben)(ben)上(shang)(shang)。

5)銷售(shou)帳。變(bian)(bian)(bian)壓(ya)器(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)(de)生產都會(hui)遵循計劃-領料-線(xian)圈繞制-裝配-試(shi)驗-入庫-銷售(shou)等流程進行(xing),按理應該(gai)是(shi)前后(hou)一(yi)致(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)邏輯過(guo)程,如果發現了前后(hou)的(de)(de)(de)矛盾點(dian),就抓住(zhu)了癥結(jie)所在(zai)。企業要(yao)么按鋁(lv)(lv)線(xian)圈(半(ban)銅(tong)半(ban)鋁(lv)(lv)、鋁(lv)(lv)箔)變(bian)(bian)(bian)壓(ya)器(qi)(qi)規格型(xing)號的(de)(de)(de)銷售(shou)數量與實(shi)(shi)際產量不(bu)(bu)符,部分“變(bian)(bian)(bian)身”了;要(yao)么就根本(ben)沒有按鋁(lv)(lv)線(xian)圈(半(ban)銅(tong)半(ban)鋁(lv)(lv)、鋁(lv)(lv)箔)變(bian)(bian)(bian)壓(ya)器(qi)(qi)規格型(xing)號銷售(shou)的(de)(de)(de)記(ji)錄(lu),當然是(shi)全(quan)“變(bian)(bian)(bian)身”。終于發現了使用鋁(lv)(lv)線(xian)圈(半(ban)銅(tong)半(ban)鋁(lv)(lv)、鋁(lv)(lv)箔)生產的(de)(de)(de)變(bian)(bian)(bian)壓(ya)器(qi)(qi)卻(que)標稱(cheng)銅(tong)線(xian)圈變(bian)(bian)(bian)壓(ya)器(qi)(qi)出(chu)廠的(de)(de)(de)事(shi)實(shi)(shi)。面對大(da)量的(de)(de)(de)證(zheng)據(ju)和執(zhi)法人員的(de)(de)(de)質詢,不(bu)(bu)得(de)不(bu)(bu)承認(ren)以鋁(lv)(lv)線(xian)圈冒充銅(tong)線(xian)圈變(bian)(bian)(bian)壓(ya)器(qi)(qi)謀取差(cha)額利潤,欺騙消費者(zhe)的(de)(de)(de)違法事(shi)實(shi)(shi)。根據(ju)以上檢查,將證(zheng)據(ju)進行(xing)分類、梳理、固(gu)定,形成一(yi)條清晰完整的(de)(de)(de)證(zheng)據(ju)鏈。

  如何定好性

  這(zhe)類(lei)(lei)案例如何定(ding)性(xing),有(you)的(de)(de)人認(ren)為(wei)(wei)是產(chan)品(pin)(pin)(pin)標(biao)(biao)識(shi)(shi)問(wen)題,有(you)的(de)(de)認(ren)為(wei)(wei)是“以(yi)假充(chong)(chong)(chong)真”,有(you)的(de)(de)認(ren)為(wei)(wei)是“以(yi)次(ci)充(chong)(chong)(chong)好(hao)”。我們認(ren)為(wei)(wei),這(zhe)類(lei)(lei)案件不(bu)是標(biao)(biao)識(shi)(shi)問(wen)題,不(bu)同(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)規格型(xing)號代(dai)表(biao)著不(bu)同(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)產(chan)品(pin)(pin)(pin),也代(dai)表(biao)不(bu)同(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)內在質(zhi)量(liang)狀(zhuang)況(kuang),并(bing)且企業是在故意(yi)而為(wei)(wei)之,不(bu)應該簡單(dan)的(de)(de)理解為(wei)(wei)產(chan)品(pin)(pin)(pin)標(biao)(biao)識(shi)(shi)問(wen)題;《產(chan)品(pin)(pin)(pin)質(zhi)量(liang)法》所(suo)稱的(de)(de)“以(yi)假充(chong)(chong)(chong)真”是指以(yi)此產(chan)品(pin)(pin)(pin)冒充(chong)(chong)(chong)與其特(te)征(zheng)、特(te)性(xing)等不(bu)同(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)其他產(chan)品(pin)(pin)(pin)或(huo)者(zhe)冒充(chong)(chong)(chong)同(tong)(tong)一類(lei)(lei)產(chan)品(pin)(pin)(pin)中具(ju)有(you)特(te)定(ding)質(zhi)量(liang)特(te)征(zheng)、特(te)性(xing)的(de)(de)產(chan)品(pin)(pin)(pin)的(de)(de)欺詐行為(wei)(wei)。所(suo)稱“以(yi)次(ci)充(chong)(chong)(chong)好(hao)”是指以(yi)低等級、低檔(dang)(dang)次(ci)的(de)(de)產(chan)品(pin)(pin)(pin)冒充(chong)(chong)(chong)高等級、高檔(dang)(dang)次(ci)產(chan)品(pin)(pin)(pin)或(huo)者(zhe)以(yi)舊產(chan)品(pin)(pin)(pin)冒充(chong)(chong)(chong)新產(chan)品(pin)(pin)(pin)的(de)(de)的(de)(de)違法行為(wei)(wei)。所(suo)以(yi),定(ding)性(xing)為(wei)(wei)“以(yi)次(ci)充(chong)(chong)(chong)好(hao)”更為(wei)(wei)妥當。


硅橡膠三相干式配電變壓器

怎樣鑒別變壓器繞組是銅還是鋁?
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